Holocaust Sites

For those seeking to locate and visit Holocaust sites and find out more about the history of the Holocaust our map of these sites may provide assistance.

There is an initial list of Holocaust sites and you can find information relevant to visiting these places. Once you’ve explored the list of Holocaust sites and selected those you wish to visit you can use our itinerary planner tool to plan your trip.

The Holocaust: Site Index

Photo by Lauren J. (cc)

Anne Frank’s House

Anne Frank’s House is a museum of the life of Holocaust victim, Anne Frank, whose diary was published to worldwide acclaim.

DID YOU KNOW?

Anne Frank’s house was the site where German Jewish teenager and Holocaust victim Anne Frank, her family, the van Pels family and later a man called Fritz Pfeffer went into hiding from the Nazis during World War II.

Although known as Anne Frank’s House, the site was originally her father’s office building and all eight inhabitants lived in a secret annex in the attic hidden by a moveable bookcase. Tragically, the group’s whereabouts were eventually betrayed to the Nazis and, on 4 August 1944, they were arrested and imprisoned in concentration camps. Anne Frank died in Bergen-Belsen in March 1945, but her diary was later discovered by her father and published to worldwide acclaim.

Anne Frank’s House is now a museum allowing visitors to see the moving bookcase, walk through the cramped secret annex and gain a true appreciation of the hardship this group endured in their fight for survival.

The Anne Frank Museum has collected and exhibits many original letters, photos and objects belonging to the Frank family as well as to the van Pels and Fritz Pfeffer. Anne Frank’s original diary is also on display.

Photo by tsaiproject (cc)

Auschwitz Concentration Camp

Auschwitz Birkenau was the largest Nazi concentration camp or death camp during World War II and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

DID YOU KNOW?

Auschwitz Birkenau was a concentration camp founded by the Nazis near the town of Oświęcim or “Auschwitz” in Poland and which became the largest and most infamous camp of them all.

Opened in 1940 following the Nazi annexation of Poland, Auschwitz was originally intended to be a prison for the large number of arrested Poles overwhelming existing local prisons. However, by 1942, Auschwitz had taken on a further role, as the main “death camp” in Hitler’s mission to exterminate the Jewish people, known as the “Final Solution” or the Holocaust.

Those interned at Auschwitz were subject to the most horrific treatment, including forced labour, starvation, random executions and various forms of torture such as “medical experiments”.

Auschwitz was also the central location for Hitler’s campaign to exterminate the Jews in gas chambers. By the time Auschwitz was liberated by Soviet forces on 27 January 1945, the camp had claimed 1.3 million lives, the vast majority of whom were Jewish.

Auschwitz was made up of three sections. The first and original “Auschwitz I” became the camp’s administrative centre, but also operated as part of the camp and was the original testing venue for gassing prisoners using Zyklon B. “Auschwitz II”, which was actually in the nearby town of Birkenau, became the main prisoner centre and a mass extermination site, while “Auschwitz III” was the main labour camp.

Auschwitz Museum is based at the original concentration camp site and offers visitors the chance to pass through the camp's infamous arches bearing the chilling slogan of "Arbeit macht frei" or "Work will set you free". Inside, visitors can tour Auschwitz Birkenau individually or in group tours. The length of the tour can vary, but lasts approximately three and a half hours.

Photo by froutes (cc)

Burgkloster

The Burgkloster was a medieval monastery turned poorhouse, court and Nazi prison.

DID YOU KNOW?

The Burgkloster (Castle Monastery) in Lubeck is considered to be one of the most important medieval monasteries in Germany. Established in 1229, the Burgkloster served as a monastery until the Protestant Reformation (circa sixteenth century) after which it was used as a poorhouse until the nineteenth century.

Under the Third Reich, the Burgkloster was used as a Nazi prison, bearing witness to terrible atrocities, particularly against Jews and those who formed the resistance movement.

Today, the Burgkloster is a museum of Lubeck’s history. Visitors can tour the building as well as viewing exhibits on the history of Lubeck’s Jewish community and about Lubeck’s time as an important member of the Hanseatic League. This was a medieval trade block which controlled much of the North Sea and Baltic Sea.

Dachau Concentration Camp

Dachau Concentration Camp was a Nazi concentration camp in Germany.

DID YOU KNOW?

Dachau Concentration Camp (KZ-Gedenkstätte Dachau) was one of the first of many concentration camps set up by the Nazis to imprison and murder certain groups as part of their campaign of genocide. Founded on 22 March 1933, a mere few weeks after Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany, Dachau Concentration Camp was seen as an example for the SS as to how to run other such camps throughout Europe.

Overall, Dachau Concentration Camp housed over 200,000 prisoners, which included Jews, homosexuals, communists and other groups considered to be inferior or subversive by the National Socialists. These prisoners were kept in dire conditions and subjected to ongoing atrocities including forced labour and medical experimentation. In total, around 41,500 people were murdered at Dachau, many of whom were incinerated in the crematorium in Barrack X.

The camp was liberated by American forces on 29 April 1945.

Today, the site of Dachau Concentration Camp houses a memorial to those who suffered and perished under the Nazis. Visitors can tour the grounds and the remains of the camp and audio guides are available as are guided tours. There are several exhibitions detailing the history of the camp as well as a documentary shown at 11:30am, 2pm and 3:30pm in English and at 11am and 3pm in German.

Photo by Historvius

Green House

The Green House looks at life and history of Lithuania’s Jewish community and the devastating effects of the Holocaust.

DID YOU KNOW?

The Holocaust exhibition, which is also called “Green House”, is located near the center of Vilnius at Pamenkalnio str. 12. It is one branch of the Vilna Gaon State Jewish Museum.

The seven rooms of the museum tell the story of the once flourishing Jewish community in Lithuania (“Litvak” community) from the times of the grand duchy of Lithuania, until their tragic death in the 20th century. The main focus of the exhibition is on the Holocaust.

Renovated in 2010, the whole exhibition is in English and Lithuanian and includes many new documents, new exhibits and audio-visual material, such as testimonies.

For further information please visit the museum’s homepage: www.jmuseum.lt

Photo by nagerw (cc)

Haus der Wannsee-Konferenz

Haus der Wannsee-Konferenz was the site where the Nazis planned the extermination of the Jews known as the Holocaust.

DID YOU KNOW?

Haus der Wannsee-Konferenz was the site of the infamous Wannsee Conference in which the Nazis planned how to carry out the “Final Solution”, the plan to murder the Jewish population of Eastern Europe.

On 20 January 1942, fifteen senior members of the Nazi government and of the SS met at Haus der Wannsee-Konferenz. Chaired by the head of the Reich Security Main Office Reinhard Heydrich,, this group of men determined the course of the genocide of the Jewish people in Europe which would come to be known as the Holocaust.

Instigated by leader of the Nazis, Adolf Hitler, the Holocaust would see over six million Jews murdered as well as members of other minorities, homosexuals, handicapped people and anyone else considered by the Nazis to be “racially inferior”.

Today, Haus der Wannsee-Konferenz provides a moving memorial to the Holocaust as well as an in-depth history of the rise of the Nazi party, the growth of anti-Semitism and the atrocities committed against the Jews.

Photo by Lauren Manning (cc)

Jewish Museum - Berlin

The Jewish Museum in Berlin explores the history of Germany’s Jewish community.

DID YOU KNOW?

The Jewish Museum in Berlin in Germany chronicles the history of German Jews over the course of two millennia. Housed in an incredibly modern building, the Berlin Jewish Museum displays historical objects, documents, photographs, multimedia presentations and even computer games relating to different periods of Jewish history and culture.

The exhibitions at the Jewish Museum in Berlin are arranged chronologically and cover various themes such as the living conditions of German Jews over the centuries, the role of Jewish women, tradition and change and the meaning of emancipation.

The Berlin Jewish Museum also looks at the issue of persecution, in particular during the Nazi era and the Holocaust, offering an insight into both the overall historical context and the lives of individual victims of the atrocities.

Photo by muppetspanker (cc)

Krakow Ghetto Wall

Krakow Ghetto Wall is the last remaining wall of the Krakow Jewish ghetto created by the Nazis in during their occupation of Poland in World War II.

DID YOU KNOW?

Krakow Ghetto Wall is a stark reminder of the Krakow Ghetto, established by German Nazi forces in March 1941 as part of their campaign to persecute the Jews. Much of the Jewish population had already been conscripted to carry out forced labour since 1939, when the Nazis occupied Poland.

Further forms of discriminatory sanctions were employed, including forcing those of Jewish descent to wear armbands and closing all synagogues. However, when the Krakow Ghetto was created in the district of Podgórze, the occupying army took their campaign a step further, moving 15,000 Jewish Poles into an area that had previously housed just 3,000 residents.

Conditions were dire within the confines of the Krakow Ghetto walls and, as well as operating as a holding place in which to categorise Jews according to whether they were fit to work, it was also a form of oppression. In 1942, Krakow Ghetto was closed and all of its inhabitants were sent to concentration camps.

Some inhabitants of Krakow Ghetto were saved during the War by Oskar Schindler, whose famous Schindler’s List was made into a film by Hollywood director, Stephen Spielberg. His factory is nearby. Another famous movie director, Roman Polański is a survivor of Krakow Ghetto.

The Ghetto Wall, flanked by a former ghetto home, is the last remaining wall of those which once bordered Krakow Ghetto. The Ghetto Wall bears a plaque commemorating Krakow Ghetto.

Photo by Philos8 (cc)

KZ Majdanek

KZ Majdanek was a Nazi concentration camp near Lublin in Poland, operational from 1941 to 1944.

DID YOU KNOW?

KZ Majdanek was a Nazi concentration camp established near the city of Lublin in Poland in September 1941. From October 1941, KZ Majdanek began accepting prisoners, most of whom were Polish and other European Jews as well as Soviet prisoners of war. By the end of its period of operation, almost thirty nations would be represented within Majdanek’s barbed wire fences.

Those sent to KZ Majdanek were subject to the worst forms of treatment, including starvation, forced labour, malnutrition and random executions. Death from disease and starvation were not uncommon and the Nazis would take to shooting large groups of prisoners into vast pits. KZ Majdanek was also used as an extermination camp, with gas chambers and two crematoriums in which to kill victims and destroy their bodies.

Overall, by the time it was liberated by Soviet soldiers in 1944, 150,000 people had been incarcerated at KZ Majdanek. According to the latest figures, 78,000 people died at KZ Majdanek, of which 60,000 were Jews.

KZ Majdanek was liberated by Soviet soldiers on 23 July 1944. With its location relatively near to the Russian border, much of the camp remained intact upon its dissolution, the Nazis not having enough time to destroy any evidence.

Today, KZ Majdanek stands as a memorial to those who suffered and perished there. Visitors can see the camp as well as the visitor centre, which houses exhibits and information about the site.

Mauthausen Concentration Camp

Mauthausen Concentration Camp was a notorious Nazi internment camp in northern Austria.

DID YOU KNOW?

Mauthausen Concentration Camp or ’KZ Mauthausen’ was a vast Nazi concentration camp in northern Austria. First established in 1938, Mauthausen Concentration Camp was built through the slave labour of prisoners from another such camp, Dachau. Over time, it grew to encompass a number of sub-camps, such as Gusen Concentration Camp.

Prisoners at Mauthausen Concentration Camp included those labelled as criminals, but were mainly comprised of anyone opposed to the Nazi regime, especially on a political or ideological basis. At a later stage, large numbers of Jews from concentration camps like Auschwitz were also transported there.

Like in all such Nazi camps, prisoners at Mauthausen were subject to numerous ongoing atrocities, such as starvation, torture, overcrowding and slave labour. Inmates at Mauthausen Concentration Camp were quite literally worked to death in the camp’s quarries and munitions factories, while the Nazis reaped the financial benefits of their work. Those who didn’t perish as a result of hard labour were liable to die of disease, malnourishment or to be killed in gas chambers.

Over 119,000 of the almost 200,000 prisoners at Mauthausen Concentration Camp had died there by the time it was liberated by American forces on 5 May 1945.

Today, Mauthausen Concentration Camp is open to the public, who can see the original camp and the terrible conditions to which prisoners were subjected. There is a visitor centre and many memorials to the different national, ethnic and religious groups who suffered at Mauthausen.

Memorial des Camps de la Mort

The Memorial des Camps de la Mort commemorates the suffering of those persecuted by the Nazis in Marseille during World War II.

DID YOU KNOW?

The Memorial des Camps de la Mort in Marseille is a Holocaust memorial and museum which commemorates the Nazi occupation of the city during World War II between November 1942 and August 1944.

During this time, the Jews of Marseille were transported out of the city and into concentration and extermination camps.

The Memorial des Camps de la Mort chronicles this tragic period of history, with moving testimony from concentration camp prisoners and witness accounts detailing the bombing and occupation of Marseille, the persecution of the Jews and the resistance movement. Photographs and information panels are also on display.

Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp

Sachsenhausen was a Nazi concentration camp 35km outside of Berlin during the Second World War.

DID YOU KNOW?

Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp (KZ-Sachsenhausen) was used by the Nazis between 1936 and 1945. Its primary function was for the imprisonment and execution - or extermination - of Jews and political dissidents, including many Dutch freedom fighters, Russian prisoners of war and even some political leaders from invaded countries.

Its prime location near Berlin ensured that Sachsenhausen was an important camp and it served as a template for other concentration camps. Estimates put the number of Sachsenhausen casualties at between 30,000 and 35,000, many of whom were shot, hung or exterminated in a specially built room in its infirmary.

Conditions in this concentration camp, as in others, were terrible, with many prisoners dying of starvation or disease.

Those who enter Sachsenhausen can still see the chilling words “Arbeit Macht Frei” or “Work will set you free” emblazoned on its iron gates. Much of Sachsenhausen was destroyed during and after its liberation by Soviet and Polish troops on 22 April 1945, but was rebuilt as part of the project to turn it into a memorial and museum.

The reconstructed Sachsenhausen draws many visitors and guided tours are available. Overall, one can gain a detailed insight into life at Sachsenhausen and see, amongst other things, the crematory ovens, the surviving buildings, pictures, documents and scale models of the camp.

Photo by sanzante (cc)

The Holocaust Memorial - Berlin

The Holocaust Memorial in Berlin commemorates the European Jews murdered under the Nazis.

DID YOU KNOW?

The Holocaust Memorial in Berlin, also known as the Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, is an installation commemorating the genocide of the Jewish people perpetrated under Adolf Hitler and the Nazis.

The Holocaust was an attempt by Hitler to exterminate the Jews and any other people who he considered “racially inferior” in what he called the “Final Solution”.

The Holocaust Memorial is a monument to the six million European Jews who died in the Holocaust. Made up of a vast dark granite maze and a subterranean information centre which has details about the victims, the Holocaust Memorial is a moving site.

The Paneriai Memorial Museum

The Paneriai Memorial Museum in Lithuania is dedicated to the victims of the Holocaust.

DID YOU KNOW?

The History of Paneriai:
Before the Second World War the beautiful forest area around Paneriai was a very popular recreational area for residents of Vilnius and its surroundings. In 1940 and 1941 Red Army soldiers established a military base in Aukštieji Paneriai and set up fuel tanks and ammunition warehouses. At that time seven large pits were excavated.

Within days of being captured by the Germans this base became a place of execution. The shootings were supervised by the Nazis, but mainly carried out by the Special Squad (Ypatingasis Būrys), which consisted of 60 to 100 Lithuanian nationalist partisans.

The site chosen for extermination met all the requirements for mass murder: the doomed could be brought from nearby Vilnius (by truck, railway or driven by foot), the forest cloaked the area from unwanted eyes and muffled the sound of shooting.

The earlier designation “base” was used for the massacre site and initially the murderers used it intentionally so that others would think Paneriai was just a “work camp.”

Between July 1941 and April 1944 more than 100,000 people were murdered at Paneriai, the majority were Jewish. However, Poles, Roma, communists and Russian prisoners of war were also killed there.

By the end of 1943, as the tide of war turned, the Nazis began to hastily destroy the evidence of their crimes. A special brigade of prisoners was forced to exhume corpses and burn them. On April 15 1944, 12 of the 80 people chosen for the burning brigade escaped. Some were captured and shot, several survived and reached partisan units.

About the Paneriai Memorial Museum:
The museum was opened in 1960 at the mass murder site. In 1985 a new museum building was built and the exhibition overhauled. The terri¬tory was also renovated under architect Jaunutis Makariūnas - the small roads were asphalted, the burial pits were renovated and commemorative stones with Russian and Lithuanian inscriptions were erected.

After Lithuanian independence, on the initiative of the Jewish community, the first memorial stone with inscriptions in Hebrew, Yiddish, Lithuanian and Russian announced that 70,000 Jews were murdered here.

In 1991 the Paneriai Museum was transferred to the Vilna Gaon State Jewish Museum.

The exhibition at the Paneriai Memorial Museum shows photographs of people murdered at Paneriai, orders and other documents issued by the occupying power and found in the area of the massacres, as well as clothing, shoes and prisoners’ work tools. In 2009, for the 50-year anniversary of the museum, parts of its exhibition were renovated.

For further information please visit the museum’s homepage: www.jmuseum.lt
 

The Warsaw Ghetto Fighters Monument

The Warsaw Ghetto Fighters Monument commemorated those who fought in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.

DID YOU KNOW?

The Warsaw Ghetto Fighters Monument (Pomnik Bohaterow Getta) commemorates those who fought and perished in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.

Beginning on 19 April 1943 and lasting almost a month, this dramatic, ultimately thwarted, insurgency took place as Nazi forces went to liquidate Warsaw’s ghetto.

The monument itself, which was designed by Natan Rapaport and unveiled on the fifth anniversary of the uprising, offers a moving depiction of the fighters led by Mordechaj Anielewicz as well as portraying the suffering of more vulnerable inhabitants.

Submitted by Dr. G A Sivan, Jerusalem

Theresienstadt Concentration Camp

Theresienstadt Concentration Camp was operated by the Nazis during the Holocaust.

DID YOU KNOW?

Theresienstadt Concentration Camp in Terezin in the Czech Republic was a Nazi concentration camp during the Holocaust.

Theresienstadt was originally a stronghold known as Terezin Fortress built in the eighteenth century to protect Prague from the possibility of invasion by Prussia. It then became a prison in the 1880’s before being taken over during the Nazi occupation of the then Czechoslovakia in World War Two.

The majority of the 140,000 to 160,000 people interned at Theresienstadt Concentration Camp were of Jewish descent and over 30,000 of the prisoners died at the camp, despite Nazi attempts to portray it as a humane institution. Many others, around 80,000 of Theresienstadt’s inmates, were sent to death camps.

Today, Theresienstadt Concentration Camp is open to the public and includes a museum as well as the possibility of visiting the former ghetto.

Tolerence Center

The Tolerence Center is one branch of the Vilna Gaon State Jewish Museum and examines the historical cultural and artistic heritage of the Jewish community in Lithuania.

DID YOU KNOW?

The Tolerence Center is one branch of the Vilna Gaon State Jewish Museum, it is located near the Center of Vilnius on Naugarduko str. 10/2.

A permanent exhibit operates at the Tolerance Center featuring the historical cultural and artistic heritage of the Litvaks, the Jewish community in Lithuania. The displays include unique relics of the Great Synagogue of Vilnius and Jewish folk and professional art. The non-permanent exhibits, thematic events and projects are oriented toward themes including the cultural education of society, social dissemination of culture, unique cultural heritage and fundamental human rights.

Permanent exhibits at Tolerance Center include: Signs of Ruined Litvaks World in art of Gerardas Bagdonavicius; Jewish Life in Lithuania; Return of Samuel Back; Installation TELZ of Romualdas Incirauskas; The Lost World tradition of paintings of Lithuanian Jews; Exhibition dedicated to 20th Museum anniversary; A Rescued Lithuanian Jewish Child tells about the Shoah (Holocaust).

For further information visit the museum's homepage: www.jmuseum.lt.

Umschlagplatz

Umschlagplatz was the place from which the Jewish community of Warsaw were sent to death camps in World War II.

DID YOU KNOW?

Umschlagplatz was the square from which Warsaw’s Jewish community were sent to death camps during World War II, particularly to Treblinka. Today, a monument marks this tragic "assembly point", from where thousands of people were transported.

Submitted by Dr. G A Sivan, Jerusalem

United States Holocaust Museum

The United States Holocaust Museum commemorates the Holocaust and explores the issue of genocide as a whole.

DID YOU KNOW?

The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington DC is dedicated to commemorating the Holocaust.

The Holocaust was the systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of approximately six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators. "Holocaust" is a word of Greek origin meaning "sacrifice by fire." The Nazis, who came to power in Germany in January 1933, believed that Germans were "racially superior" and that the Jews, deemed "inferior," were an alien threat to the so-called German racial community.

During the era of the Holocaust, German authorities also targeted other groups because of their perceived "racial inferiority": Roma (Gypsies), the disabled, and some of the Slavic peoples (Poles, Russians, and others). Other groups were persecuted on political, ideological, and behavioral grounds, among them Communists, Socialists, Jehovah's Witnesses, and homosexuals.

In 1933, the Jewish population of Europe stood at over nine million. Most European Jews lived in countries that Nazi Germany would occupy or influence during World War II. By 1945, the Germans and their collaborators killed nearly two out of every three European Jews as part of the "Final Solution," the Nazi policy to murder the Jews of Europe. Although Jews, whom the Nazis deemed a priority danger to Germany, were the primary victims of Nazi racism, other victims included some 200,000 Roma (Gypsies). At least 200,000 mentally or physically disabled patients, mainly Germans, living in institutional settings, were murdered in the so-called Euthanasia Program. See the Museum’s Holocaust Encyclopedia for more information. 

Combining eyewitness testimony, displayed in films and documents, with over 900 artifacts including one of the railcars used to transport prisoners, the Holocaust Museum tells the story of this world event.

The Holocaust Museum also looks at the issue of genocide as a whole, displaying exhibitions about other atrocities around the world. On average, a tour of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum takes between 2 and 3 hours.

Warsaw Ghetto

The Warsaw Ghetto was established by the Nazis to forcibly house the Jewish population of the city.

DID YOU KNOW?

Warsaw Ghetto (Getto Warszawskie) was established by the Nazis to forcibly house the city’s Jewish population, with up to 400,000 people confined here from October 1940.

Conditions were dire and gradually became worse with the official implementation of the "Final Solution", the Nazi plan to annihilate the Jewish people.

In 1943, the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising took place, a dramatic rebellion which occurred when the Nazis attempted to liquidate the ghetto and one which saw it razed to the ground.

Very little of the Warsaw Ghetto survives today. There are fragments of the original ghetto wall and several memorials including the Mila 18 monument where the uprising headquarters were located and an inscription where insurgent leader Mordechaj Anielewicz and the last of the uprising fighters perished. There is also the Warsaw Ghetto Fighters Monument and a monument at Umschlagplatz, the site from where Jews were transported to the death camps.

Submitted by Dr. G A Sivan, Jerusalem

Photo by Paul74 (cc)

Yad Vashem

Yad Vashem is the museum of the Holocaust in Jerusalem.

DID YOU KNOW?

Yad Vashem in Jerusalem is a museum and a memorial of the Holocaust, in which over six million Jews, and at least five million from other ethnic groups, were murdered in an act of genocide perpetrated by the German National Socialist Party (the Nazis) under Adolph Hitler.

Beginning with the persecution of the Jews in Germany in 1933, the Nazis began a campaign in which Jews and other social and ethnic groups were taken into forced labour and extermination camps, suffering torture, intolerable conditions and mass executions.

Through exhibits including photographs, victims’ accounts, art installations and information panels, Yad Vashem offers a moving – and harrowing – account of the events of the Holocaust. This site features as one of our recommended key places to visit in Israel.